Gender Reassignment Surgery - Female To Male (FTM)

FTM transgender surgery is a complex process involving physical, hormonal and psychological challenges

By Brandie Umar, Executive Director of ContentLast modified: March 29, 2012

Female To Male Gender Reassignment Defined

Female to male sexual reassignment surgery, or FTM transgender surgery is a complex process involving physical, hormonal and psychological challenges. Before the sex change procedure begins, patients must have intense counseling to ensure they are aware of the implications, physically and psychologically of changing sexes.

If the counselor and the patient decide if sexual reassignment surgery is appropriate, patients must complete a course of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). For female-male transgender patients, the course of HRT will be testosterone based to stimulate the growth of body and facial hair and deepen the voice.

Female To Male Gender Reassignment Procedure

Female-male sex change surgery, or FTM transgender surgery is more complex than male-female genital reassignment because the female genitalia is inside the body and the female sex organs must be removed before a penis can be constructed. Surgeons first perform a hysterectomy to remove the female sex organs. Once the ovaries, uterus and vagina have been removed, a penis will be constructed using the clitoris. The clitoris will have enlarged pre-surgery from the hormone replacement therapy. If the enlargement is not enough, tissue grafts and a penile prosthetic may be used. The uretha will be redirected through the new penis and the vulva is joined together to create a scrotum within which prosthetic testes are inserted.

Female-male transgender patients will generally require a mastectomy to remove the breasts and may choose to have pectoral implants inserted at the same time to create a masculine chest. Abdominal etching is a popular cosmetic procedure performed after female-male sexual reassignment surgery as it helps give the appearance of a masculine six-pack of stomach muscles. If the patient has an effeminate face, cosmetic surgeons can alter the face using facial plastic surgery techniques.

Female To Male Gender Reassignment Risks

As with all surgeries there are risks to gender reassignment surgery. Patients must take care to avoid infection post-surgery and may be required to have follow up surgeries to alter the appearance of the reconstructed genitalia.

Female To Male Gender Reassignment Results

80% of patients are pleased with the results of their gender reassignment surgeries.

The genital reassignment surgery itself does not require a long recovery period. The adjustment to life as a man can often require ongoing psychological help as the mannerisms and characteristics of  a man take time to develop. Transsexuals who have been living as a man prior to surgery adjust quicker following surgery and feel the surgery gives them the freedom to live life in their correct gender.

Cost Of Female To Male Gender Reassignment

Female-male transgender surgery can cost up to $60,000 for all procedures necessary to create the desired look and functionality of a male body. To find out the cost of sexual reassignment surgery in a location close to you and to find a surgeon you trust, click here to search for a doctor.

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This article was written by the medical research team at does not intend for any of the information on this site to be regarded as medical advice - it is meant as a starting point for understanding treatment details and options before contacting a registered, licensed doctor. We advise all patients to seek medical advice from a doctor.
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