Brain & Nervous System

By Kai Wade, Director of Communications & Social MediaLast modified: October 17, 2011


Neurology is the area of medicine that diagnoses and treats conditions affecting the brain and central nervous system. Neurology is practiced by neurologists and neurosurgeons.

Neurology is concerned with any disorder that interferes with the functioning of the brain hemispheres or the association between the brain and spinal cord. A neurology examination is executed to help determine specific disorders including motor and sensory abilities, the operation of one or more cranial nerve, hearing and speech, vision, balance, mental capacity, and mood variation.

A neurological exam helps diagnose brain tumors, infections, and diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, spinal stenosis, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and epilepsy

Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which masses of nerve cells in the brain at times signal uncharacteristically. In epilepsy, the normal activity pattern becomes disturbed, causing strange sensations, reactions, and behavioral convulsions including muscle spasms and loss of perception.

In deep brain stimulation, a surgeon inserts a small instrument called a neurostimulator under the skin proximate to the collar bone. The tool executes by electrically exciting the surrounding nerves, hindering abnormal nerve indicators that cause shock in Parkinson's disease patients.

Sleep is a dominant channel of epilepsy, with some epilepsy syndromes occurring exclusively or predominantly during sleep. Sleep deficiency has also been labeled as a risk factor for epileptic seizures. Management of sleep disorders that pierce sleep, such as Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB), has been proven to enhance seizure control.

Sleep disorders can also transpire as a result of handling neurological disorders. Pathological drowsiness may occur during treatment of Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders with treatment drugs. Many drugs being used to treat neurological disorders can cause excessive sleepiness or sleeplessness. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), an approved treatment for medically refractory epilepsy has been shown to cause apnea.

Neurological conditions may be genetically inherited, caused by trauma to the brain or spinal cord or a degenerative disease. Neurological disorders often occur as the result of emotional trauma or stress. Below are the most common neurological disorders.
Neurological examinations  -  helps determine the severity of the problem by  testing speech, coordination, balance, reflexes, and mental stability.

Fluoroscopy a type of X ray exam used to create images of the body.

Cerebral angiogram determines blockage of the arteries or blood vessels.

Brain scans; MRI, CT, PET  Can determine brain hemorrhaging and malfunctions of the brain and detect tumors.

Electroencephalography EEG , monitors brain activity, often used after accidents from head and spine injuries.

Electromyography EMG ; determines muscle dysfunction of the spine and associate nerves.

Traveling abroad to India might cost you an average of $300 for an MRI and CT scan, but in Mexico, the MRI and CT scans are bit more, ranging around $500 - $600. Individuals traveling to Brazil and Thailand may save an upwards of 70% on costs of neurological diagnostic testing compared to the United States.

ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Or Lou Gehrig's Disease)

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis or ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a disease in which voluntary muscles slowly stop functioning because nerve cells are dying. It is unclear why the nerve cells die off. ALS is uncurable and fatal.

Alzheimer Treatments

Alzheimer's Disease is a disease which destroys brain cells. The disease causes loss of memories, thoughts and decison making skills. Alzheimer's Disease normally appears in persons older than sixty five years of age, but has been found in persons in their thirties.

Bell's Palsy Treatments

Bell's Palsy is a condition characterized the paralysis of one side of the face. The onset of the condition is sudden and normally without warning.

Botolinum Toxin Therapy for Dystonia

Botolinum toxin therapy, or botox therapy as it is commonly known, is a treatment method that can reduce muscle spasms and reduce pain caused by the disorder Dystonia that causes involuntary muscle spasms.

Brain Surgery (Craniotomy)

Brain Surgery (Craniotomy) is a surgery in which the skull bone is cut away to gain access to the brain. There are high risks and complications in having Brain Surgery (Craniotomy). Severe injuries, trauma and illnesses lead to Brain Surgery (Craniotomy).

Cerebral Palsy Treatments

Cerebral Palsy is any one of a group of diorders caused by brain abnormalities. It is not known what causes the brain abnormalities, but the condition affects children. The brain abnormalities that cause Cerebral Palsy can happen in the womb,during labor and during the baby and toddler years.

CT Scan (Computed Tomography)

A Computed Tomography scan or CT scan is a series of X-rays taken in high definition. The resulting images are very detailed and can assist in diagnosing and pinpointing various illnesses, conditions and disorders.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep brain stimulation is a neurological surgery used to treat tremors caused by Parkinsons disease, control epileptic seizures and in rare cases, as a treatment for depression. Following the same logic as a heart-pacemaker or vagus nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation sends electrical signals to the brain to repair the dysfunctional circuit that is causing the symptoms.


Dementia is a condition in which cognitive skills gradually decline and are lost due to various underlying conditions. Often associated with old age, Dementia can be experienced by anyone. Dementia itself,is not a disease. Dementia is a symptom of a group of various diseases and illnesses that affect brain functions.

EEG (Electroencephalography)

An EEG (Electroencephalography) test evaluates the electrical activity of the brain. An EEG test assist doctors in diagnosing certain sleep disorders and brain conditions.

EMG (Electromyography)

An EMG (Electromyography) test evaluates muscle responses. An EMG test assist doctors in diagnosing various muscular and nerve dysfunction conditions.


Encephalitis is a condition in which the brain becomes inflamed. The condition is more common than one may believe. Often the symptoms mild and easily treated.


Epilepsy, a neurological condition causing seizures and convulsions, affects over 50 million people worldwide.  Learn about epilepsy causes, symptoms, treatment and the types of epilepsy.


The brain is divided into two sections called hemispheres: the right and left hemisphere are connected by a collection of nerves, the corpus callopsum.

A hemispherectomy is a neurosurgery procedure to remove part of one of the hemispheres damaged by epileptic seizures. Learn about the neurosurgery procedure for hemispherectomy

Huntington's Disease

Huntington's Disease is a degenerative brain disease. Hungtington's is an inherited neurological condition that causes the brain neurons to die due to a defective gene mutation. People suffering from Huntington's gradually loose the ability to control movement, emotions and mental actions. For more information about this disease and to contact a neurologist read this overview to Huntington's by


Hydrocephalus is commonly known as water on the brain. Hydrocephalus is a serious neurological condition which occurs when there is fluid build up in the brain. There are different surgeries neurosurgeons can perform to drain fluid from the brain and prevent neurological damage.

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease that attacks the myelin sheath which surrounds and protects nerve fibers of the brain and spinal cord.

Neurological disorders

Neurological diseases and problems can occur as a result of genetics, environmental factors or trauma. There are more than 600 diagnosed neurological disorders that effect patients speech, movement, memory and ability to function. Learn more about Epilepsy, Huntington's disease,Alzeheimer's,  Parkinson's disease,Muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, Tourettes, Aphasia, attention deficit hyperactive disorder


Neurosurgery is one of the most specialized and complex areas of medicine. Learn about neurosurgery procedures and the conditions neurosurgeons can treat. Contact a neurosurgeon worldwide.

Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement. It develops gradually with a barely noticeable tremor in few parts of the body.


Rhizotomy is an extremely successful treatment that cures spasticity completely. The patient needs some physiotherapy treatment post surgery that helps them to develop motor skills. Rhizotomy is a very minimally inexpensive treatment that is available everywhere. To explore your options you can contact the renowned spasticity clinics near you today.

Sleep Disorders

Sleep disorders can range from occasional disrupted sleep patterns to insomnia over a period of months.There are over 60 identified forms of sleep disorder categorised in three ways:

  • Lack of sleep
  • Excess sleep
  • Disrupted sleep
Learn more about sleep disorders with

Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis causes a narrowing of a section of the spine and this narrowing compresses the nerves within the spinal cord. When the spinal cord and the nerves become compressed, signals from the brain to the nerves and limbs are disrupted. This causes pain in the thighs, buttocks... Learn more about spinal stenosis and available treatment and contact a neurosurgeon.

Symptoms of neurological disease

Neurological problems occur when the connections between the nervous system and the brain are interrupted or damaged in some way. Due to the ability of neurological disease to strike any part of the nervous system, neurological problems can range from behavioural & cognitive, such as ADHD in children, to degenerative diseases such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases. Epilepsy, one of the most common neurological diseases, affects more than 50 million people.

Vagus Nerve Stimulation

Vagus nerve stimulation is used to control epileptic seizures if medication has failed. Vagus nerve stimulation works by using a device to send electrical impulses to the vagus nerve that connects the brain and many organs. The electrical impulses are administered by a device similar to a heart-pacemaker that is inserted under the skin. Learn more about the insertion of the implant and the vagus nerve stimulation treatment.

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