Eye Care (Ophthalmology)

Anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyes

By Kai Wade, Director of Communications & Social MediaLast modified: October 17, 2011

Eye Care (Ophthalmology)

The Branch of Medicine Dealing with the Anatomy, Physiology, and Diseases of the Eye.

Sight is vital to our overall well-being. If you cannot see properly every aspect of your life is tainted. Protecting and improving vision is what ophthalmologists are trained to do. Minor eye-sight problems can be solved by wearing glasses or contact lenses; however some problems may need surgery to correct them. Many sight-threatening diseases, if detected prematurely can be alleviated or treated to prevent, or interrupt the development of vision loss.

The most significant preventive step in eye care is getting routine examinations by a qualified ophthalmologist. Individuals with diabetes are severely at threat for several eye disorders, comprising of diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, retina detachment, and should have annual routine examinations or follow instructions set by their doctor.

The Eye Structure: cornea (the clear front window of the eye), lens (transparent structure inside the eye), pupil (dark aperture in the iris), retina (nerve layer that lines the back of the eye), iris (colored part of the eye)
Each individual eye is exclusive.

The lens is predominantly made of water and proteins. A nourished lens is clear, permitting light to pass through directing it onro the retina. As we age the body becomes less conditioned, the lens proteins can cluster together, creating cloudy areas called cataracts. They reduce the amount of light that extends to the retina, making vision hazy or dim.

Cataracts left untreated will initiate blindness, and are in fact the primary cause of blindness worldwide. Cataract surgery is one of the more collective procedures performed in which the entire lens must be removed.

Open-angle glaucoma
, commonly distresses nearly 4 million US patients whom most are unaware of it. Glaucoma is active when normal fluid pressure inside the eyes rises slowly leading to vision loss, or even blindness. Currently no known cure for Glaucoma has been discovered; early detection and treatment can help prevent additional loss of vision or blindness.
Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a fearsome vision disorder normally associated with old age, but can also occur earlier in life. The center of vision is lost, but peripheral vision is preserved. Frightfully the condition can evolve slowly or very rapidly.

Are you suffering with vision difficulties or a variation in vision? An ophthalmologist can advise you on the best surgical or laser option to restore 20-20 sight.

Find an Eye Doctor (Ophthalmologists) in your location.

Cataract Surgery

Cataracts cause a clouding of the eye lens making vision blurred and if left untreated, cataracts can cause total loss of vision. Cataract extraction surgery removes the cataract and restores vision .

Causes of Eyesight Problems

There are many reasons why eyesight may start to fade but deteriorating vision doesn't mean you will loose your sight. Ophthalmologists and eye clinics provide eye examinations to identify the cause of the vision impairment and determine the most suitable treatment.

Cornea Transplant

Cornea transplants are one of the most commonly performed transplant surgeries and eye surgeries.

The cornea is the dome-shaped lens at the front of the eye. The cornea is responsible for 2/3 of the eyes light and image focusing. Damage to the cornea, caused by injury or disease is repaired with a cornea transplant that replaces the damaged corneal tissue with donor tissue.

Diabetes and vision problems

Diabetes is a progressive condition that overtime damages not only the overall health of your body but can cause eye sight problems and even blindness.

The retina is the tissue at the back of the eye and contains tens of tiny blood vessels. In front of the retina is the lens, the lens focuses light that enters the eye back to the retina. The retina acts almost like a camera film - when the light sent for the lens hits the retina, the retina send images back to the brain where the images are processed.   

Diabetes mellitus damages the lens and the retina over time.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy a disease of the retina triggered by side effects of diabetes. This eye disease is caused by changes to the blood vessels located in the retina, the nerve layer at the back of the eye and is a disease that if left untreated will lead to blindness. There are varying stages of diabetic retinopathy, starting with the small blood vessels at the back of the retina swelling and leaking fluid and advancing to a stage where the eye generates lots of new smaller blood vessels that leak blood into the eye and cause loss of vision.


Glaucoma is a progressive form of eye disease that damages the optic nerve. Glaucoma is caused by the eyes being unable to correctly drain fluid which causes pressure to build up in the eye. High pressure in the eye damages the optic nerves and if left untreated, glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness.

Laser eye surgery

Laser eye surgery, commonly known as Lasik, is a revolutionary way to improve vision. By reshaping the cornea, opthamologists can improve vision impairments caused by a number of eye conditions. Frequently asked questions about laser eye surgery

Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration is one of the leading causes of vision deterioration in the elderly. The macular is the tissue in the centre of the retina, the area of the eye that controls central vision. Central vision allows you to read, drive and see objects in front of you. While macular degeneration rarely leads to blindness it is a serious form of eye disease because loss of central vision impairs many areas of your life.

Prevention Of Vision Problems

Protecting your eyesight is vitally important and starts as a child. Regular eye examinations by an optician or ophthalmologist will ensure that any eye disease or vision impairments are corrected before vision is lost.

Pterygium Removal (Surfers Eye)

Pterygium (Surfers Eye) is believed to be caused by overexposure to sun, wind, and salt water. Pterygium (Surfers Eye) can be prevented by wearing sunglasses, frequently using eye drops, and wearing goggles in salt water. Surgery is the only known cure for Pterygium (Surfers Eye).

Ptosis (Lazy Eye)

Ptosis (Lazy Eye) is a condition in which the eyelid droops leading to an unattrative appearance, or vision problems. The eyelid droops due to the underdevelopment or elongation of the tendons that hold up the upper eyelid. Ptosis (Lazy Eye) can be treated in the short term through the use of glasses but may eventually require surgery to correct the length of the tendons.

Retina Detachment

The retina is the multi-layered sensory and pigment tissue layer at the back of the eye that converts light rays into electrical impulses. These impulses are sent to the optic nerve and then to the brain where the image is processed. Retina detachment is when the sensory and pigment layers of retinal tissue separate, preventing images being processed and leading to vision loss.

Tear Duct Repair

Tear duct repair is a procedure in which the patient's tear duct are repaired by medication, dilation, intubation, massaging or surgery.

Wet Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the condition, whereby, the central vision is slowly loss. An individual who suffers from Wet AMD cannot see fine details, but still has peripheral vision. Wet AMD has no cure, but is treatable.

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